4 responses one for each post
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3. SARA Title III activities. Briefly describe its role in the development or management of the County’s EOP.
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) is legislation specifically to protect a community from chemical hazards. Also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, it deals with the communityâ€™s public health, safety, and environment. SARA is important in the development of a Countyâ€™s EOP in that it helps local governments capability to prepare and respond to a disaster in their area. It provides information to local citizens about the hazards located in their community. Knowing about the hazards present and their potential for disaster on the community is essential in compiling a complete and thorough County EOP. An important component of the EOP would be the location of the chemicals along with Material Safety and Data Sheets on each chemical.
What is EPCRA? (2018). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/epcra/what-epcra
SARA Title III Fact Sheet. (2018). Retrieved from https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyNET.exe/940034PP.TXT?Z…
4. Man-made disaster: train derailment
1.Assess needs – Why do we need to do this? There is a stretch of train tracks that runs just 100 feet from a local elementary school. Our community needs a full-scale exercise twice a year to be properly prepared.
2. Define Scope – The exercise will focus on the derailment of 3 cars along the tracks near the elementary school. The cars will all contain the same chemical hazard. Local EMS, FD, PD, Red Cross, and railroad representatives will participate in the exercise.
3. Write Statement of Purpose – For the purpose of simulating a train derailment, this proposed emergency management exercise is to test and evaluate the following functions:
a. Evacuation and Sheltering
b. Mutual Aid
c. Management of resources
d. Public information and communication
Involved are the following agencies and personnel:
a. Railroad representative
b. Law enforcement
d. Fire Department
e. Red Cross
4. Define Objectives – The objective is for participants to demonstrate their ability to respond to a train derailment, effectively establish an incident command post immediately, effectively notify nearby citizens, contain the hazard, and set up a shelter according to the County Emergency Operations Plan.
5. Compose Narrative – A 30-car train enroute from New Orleans to New York is passing through the community. The train is running late and has picked up speed higher than the recommended limit. As the train rounds the curve near the elementary school, the last three cars derail. Weather conditions are clear and cold. Wind is blowing from the Northwest. 911 starts receiving calls from citizens in the vicinity as soon as the derailment occurs. There was no advanced warning but local police, fire, and EMS are dispatched to the scene immediately and arrive within 8 minutes.
6. Write major and detailed events –
Disaster: Train derailment
1. Cars derail (3 total)
2. One of the cars explodes. One tree in the school yard catches fire. Fire spreads to a storage building at the school. Hazardous smoke rises and is carried away by the northwest wind.
3. Children at the school are in danger of breathing in toxic chemicals. Parents begin to drive to the school, jamming the parking lot and nearby roads, reducing access to emergency workers.
4. Local residents in the area need to be notified of the event and advised either to shelter in place or evacuate.
7. List expected actions
Detailed event: cars derail
Expected action: Notify local police, fire, EMS as well as putting on alert neighboring services. Local residents within a 1 mile radius are notified of the event and evacuated. Children and staff at the elementary school are evacuated.
Detailed event: one car, a tree and shed catch fire.
Expected action: Fire department contains the fire. Consider mutual aid. EMS on standby. PD set up safety perimeter.
Detailed event: Homes are evacuated, creating the need for a shelter
Expected action: Red Cross sets up a shelter at a local high school that is outside the hot zone. Local residents within a 1 mile radius are notified of the event and evacuated. Children and staff at the elementary school are evacuated.
8. Prepare messages
Event: derailment occurs. Expected Action: Notify local police, fire, EMS, and Red Cross as well as putting on alert neighboring services.
Message: Radio – â€œ100 Main Street, emergency behind the elementary school. All available units respond. Train Derailment. Access from the cross streets of Elm Street and Oak Street. One car on fire, be aware of toxic gases in the area.â€
Message: Telephone – call local Red Cross to notify of the event and request emergency shelter activation. â€œAn area of 1 square mile is being evacuated. We are in need of a shelter that can house 75 people.â€
Message: Telephone – call the Railroad company and request assistance. â€œYour train has derailed. We are in immediate need for assistance with identifying the chemical and how to contain it.â€
The tale of the local Emergency Planning Committee ( LEPC) is to support the emergency planning for chemical hazards and give the public information about chemical hazards the may happen in the community. They may go beyond chemical hazards to natural disasters and industrial emergencies like power outages, chemical and nuclear incidents. Their goal is to educate the public on their responsibility in emergency preparedness, establish and maintain subcommittee structure, establish partnerships with local, regional or national groups. LEPC made up of government officials, police, fire, and EMS, industry reps, media and volunteers.
Man-made disaster: bombing
We are doing this exercise because the mad- made disasters epically bombing has increased recently, so our community needs at least full-scale exercise annually to be prepared for such events.
The scope will focus on the current response to the bombing and evaluate that response to see if there any weakness that needs to be addressed. We will need the Fire, public, law enforcement, EMS representatives to participate in this exercise.
Write the statement of purpose
The purpose of simulating a bombing event is to test and evaluate
- public information and Communication
- Evacuation and housing
- Available and needed resources
- Law enforcement
- Fire department
The objectives of an operations-based exercise reflect the desire to examine the capabilities that exist within an operations center such as an emergency operation center. It requiring the players to actually implement the plans, procedures, and tasks involved in the operations of coordination. The staff responsibilities and roles in such exercises.
Compose narrative- a bomb in the central city of anywhere happened while 3000 people were attending a local band concert the suicide bomber died and injured at least 20 people. Weather conditions are cold and cloudy. 911 started receiving calls from people as soon as the bombing happened. The law enforcement arrived first within 8 minutes then fire and EMS within 10 minutes.
Write major and detailed events
When the suicide bomber active the bomb caused injury from the bomb and from his parts that flew and injured others.
People there hared the bombing and panic and they started to run over the injured, old people, and kids.
The people in the scene and the areas around it need to evacuate to avoid second bombing device.
List expected actions
Notification the police, fire, EMS and the people to evacuate the area and donot try to help others until the scene get secured.
The red cross set reunification points with EMS to provide the treatment and get people information.
Radio: Local band concert in the center city of anywhere bombing. All expected unites respond. There may be a second device in the scene so please no one allowed to be around that area.
Telephone: Call the Red Cross to evacuate the area and find shelters for 250 people.
Local Emergency Planning Committee Local Emergency Planning Committee. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.princegeorgeva.org/public_safety/local_emergency_planning_committee.php
WRITING CAPABILITY-BASED EXERCISE OBJECTIVES. (n.d.) Retrieved file:///C:/Users/admin/Downloads/WritingObjectivesManuaV1.pdf
Logistic in an Emergency Operations Plan
Receiving and distribution of emergency supplies
Warning and alerts systems
Humanitarian supply chain
A data backup plan
Crisis communication network
The FEMA 8-Step Process for a Shooter or a Bombing Situation
1. Assess needs
Assessment of the immediate needs of the victims and identification of the response required for each individual. Priority should be given to life saving actions, such as evacuation and ambulatory responses
2. Define Scope
Evaluation of the bombing or shooting disaster in terms of magnitude is required to determine the nature of resources needed to make an effective response (Philpott & Cassavant, 2016). In particular, definition of scope would indicate the number of fire trucks or ambulances needed during the response.
3. Write Statement of Purpose
Outlining the objectives of the functional exercise would serve as a guide to effective management of the disaster since responders will utilize the available resources in a more rational manner.
4. Define Objectives
Definition of objectives has to include all the actions needed for the achievement of each objective (Dillon, 2014). For a bombing or shooting incidents, saving as many lives as possible and prevention another incident should have a clear definition and appropriate actions.
5. Compose Narrative
The narrative should include place, time, scope, the type of damage made and the immediate needs of the victims. It should also contain the actions and resources required to save lives, protect vulnerable groups as well as mitigate the disaster.
6. Write Major and Detailed Events
This step should entail listing and explaining the major events that would be undertaken during the disaster response and management (Dillon, 2014). For a bombing or shooting incidents, the events would include the creation of evacuation routes, deployment of transport resources to evacuate the vulnerable people and to take the injured to hospital, distribution of relief resources, and crisis communication.
7. List Expected Actions
a. Save as many lives as possible
b. To protect vulnerable groups
c. Prevent an immediate recurrence
8. Prepare Messages
The crisis communication team should prepare guidance messages, warnings, and alerts and disseminate them in time to all the vulnerable groups (Alexander, 20024). For the current incident, it is essential for the messages to reach non-affected adjacent areas to enhance their preparedness.
Alexander, D. (2002). Principles of emergency planning and management. Edinburg, UK: Dunedin Academic Press.
Dillon, B. (2014). Blackstone’s emergency planning, crisis and disaster management. (2nd ed.).Oxford, UK: OUP.
Philpott, D., & Cassavant, D. (2016). Emergency preparedness: A safety planning guide for people, property and business continuity. (2nd ed.). London, UK: Rowman & Littlefield.
2. The Liberty County HVA (ESSD) includes 24 areas. Choose any two of those areas (except hurricanes) and comment.
3.1.6 Wildland Fires. Comparing the write up from hurricanes to the wildland fires they did not include any maps of try to identify high vulnerability areas. They also only mentioned firefighting resources they did not include police or EMS. Police would be needed to clear roads and possibly people from potential communities in the fires path. They did not include any of the Park rangers, or park staff. The use of the national weather service to predict winds could be critical as well. They did do a fare job describing the duration scope and intensity.
3.1.7 Severe Weather. They did not define National Weather Service NWS. They also based frequency of severe weather events on experience? Whos experience? Frequency should be coming from records of weather recorded for the area, hard data not experience.
4. Think about a man made event such as a bombing or shooter situation. Discuss the eight-step design process of the event you selected and apply it to a functional exercise. Use the steps to build the foundation for a functional exercise. This is the FEMA 8-step process:
Active shooter event in the city of Philadelphia in two separate locations. Art museum Steps and Reding terminal on a Saturday afternoon during high tourist hours.
1. Assess needs: The need for this functional exercise is to evaluate the response time and capabilites of law enforcement and EMS to 2 separate active shooter scenarios in the City of Philadelphia during high tourist hours in the summer. The need is to insure the safety of tourist and the city from a terrorist act and to test the command and control of leadership.
2. Define Scope. The scope of this functional exercise (FE) is large, having two incidents with in the city at the same time will stress communication and coordination efforts. Volunteers will be recruited to play tourist to add to the confusion. Space will be limited in Reding terminal and the Art Museum steps during actual tourist hours. Time of the FE will be conducted on a Sunday morning between the hours of 0500 and 0700.
3. Write Statement of Purpose. The purpose of the proposed functional exercise is to improve the following emergency operations
- Police response
- EMS response
- 911 communications
- Mass casualty operations
By involving the following agencies:
- Emergency Management
- Health Department
4. Define Objectives
Within 3minutes foot/bike patrol police respond to gunshot noise and start communicating to command through radios.
EMS Units stage for mass casualty evacuation to designated hospitals and stand by for all clear from police with in 5 minutes of dispatch call.
911 dispatch follows protocols of high volume of 911 calls from 2 locations.
Police Patrol cars respond to shots fired calls to nearest location with in 5 minutes of call.
Police eliminate or identify shooters with in 1-15 minutes of first shots fired.
Health department begins procedures to handle influx of trauma patients in hospitals in the City area with 5 minutes of mass casualty warning from 911 services
5. Compose Narrative
On the 4th Saturday of June at 12 noon 4 terrorist attacked Philadelphia. The shootings happened at the Art museum steps and reding terminal. Calls from eye witness, victims and patrolling police to 911 have notified response police, ems and other responders. The shooting had no advance warning and happened suddenly catching police and tourist off guard. Crowds of people have started to flee the scene , shooters could be hiding with in the crowd or have planted IEDs. Third attack site could be possible.
6. Write major and detailed events.
Identifying shooters and capturing or eliminating them.
Treatment and evacuation of casualties to hospitals in high traffic times.
Possibilities of IED , need for bomb squad clearance.
Second possible attack area, higher security in the city in tourist locations and transportation locations.
Control of scene, keeping media and floating people out.
Estimating casualties and fatalities.
7. List expected actions
Police: Identify shooters, detain or eliminate threat. Secure surrounding areas. Secure possible secondary attack locations. Help Provide first aid.
EMS: Set a CCP. Treat Mass bleeding victims, evacuate to designated hospitals.
Fire: assist in road blockages, staging for possible fires from bomb blast or arson. Assist in evacuation of victims
Hospitals: Notify other medical facilities as appropriate. Flex beds , prepare ER for Mass casualties.
Dispatch Center: Regulate 911 calls into regions and priority of calls. Alert police fire and medical supervisors
8. Prepare messages
From: Police To :Dispatch
Automatic Shots fired at Art Museum Steps at 1200 noon, At lease 20 people have been hit, Shooters are behind cover and concealment on west side of steps. Foot patrol attempting to flank from the north.
From: Dispatch To: EMS
Shots fired at Art Museum Steps, Minimum of 20 casualties, police advising to stage on south side of Art Museum on Spring Garden St. Prepare for mass bleeding injuries. Avoid Northside of Museum and Spring Garden Bridge. Additional casualties from secondary shooting at Reding terminal.
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