I have a research paper (6-10 pgs) about “How climate change effects the breeding of avian species in north america” I have my research articles that need to be used along with what I believe they c I

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I have a research paper (6-10 pgs) about “How climate change effects the breeding of avian species in north america” I have my research articles that need to be used along with what I believe they c

I have a research paper (6-10 pgs)  about “How climate change effects the breeding of avian species in north america”

I have my research articles that  need to be used along with what I believe they could be useful/relevant to the paper

Ready to negotiate

this due date is Oct 12, 10pm

I have a research paper (6-10 pgs) about “How climate change effects the breeding of avian species in north america” I have my research articles that need to be used along with what I believe they c I
BIO 4900B: Senior Seminar Dr. Grabarczyk Review paper This assignment is due Friday, October 7th, 2022 by 11:59PM The basics: You will write a 6-10 page review paper that asks a biological question, which you answer/argue with evidence from the primary literature. There are essentially three aspects of this paper. First, you will introduce what your topic is and the biological question(s) you seek to answer. Second, you will provide evidence to argue/show/explain your ideas regarding this topic and question. Finally, you will summarize your findings based on your research. Paper structure: Title Page Include the title of the paper, your name, course title and number, name of instructor, and the submission date. This does not count towards your 6-10 pages! Introduction The goal of the introduction section of your review should be to briefly define your review framework (key background information) as well as your question (purpose of the review). To do this, you should clearly state the main BIG question addressed by your review paper and place that question in a broader context (e.g., what does this mean for science or biology? How does this question affect society?). This is your opportunity to introduce your subject by synthesizing the current knowledge and theories in the area of research. In the introduction you should cite at least two scientific papers that lend support to your overall review framework. Main body/Discussion The goal of the main body/discussion is to provide evidence (peer reviewed journal articles) to support your research and ideas. The main body of the paper can be organized anyway that you feel is appropriate, depending on your perspective on the subject. For example, you can use an historical approach, arrange your discussion by major area of research on the subject, or focus on controversy and dissent associated with competing ideas. This section should be under a new heading that is relevant to your research topic, you may use sub-headings if needed. Remember! Whatever you put in the main body of the paper should relate back to your BIG question as stated in the introduction. Expect to cite at least eight scientific papers in this section. Conclusions This is your opportunity to remind the reader in 1-2 paragraphs of your study question, what you found, what it means, and why we should care. To do this, summarize the major points discussed in your review and the current state of knowledge on the topic. You might highlight controversies on the topic if present and suggest future lines of research. Include a final statement (1-3 sentences) on the broader implications to science and the impact on society. You may or may not have citations in your conclusions paragraph. Literature Cited See below for formatting. Provide a literature cited section listing in alphabetical order the sources used in your paper. This section does not count towards your 6-10 pages! Formatting: Your review paper must be at least 6 double-spaced pages in length, and no more than 10 pages, with one-inch margins. The page number should be indicated at the bottom of each page. Font should be 12-point serif or 10-point sans serif. Papers should be turned in via BlazeView, instructor email ([email protected]), or a hard copy. In-text citations: Each reference cited in the text must be listed in the Literature cited. One author – (Jones, 1995) or (Jones, 1995; Smith, 1996). Two authors – (Jones and Kane, 1994) or (Jones and Kane, 1994; Smith, 1996). More than two authors – (Jones et al., 1995) or (Jones et al., 1995a; Jones et al., 1995b; Smith et al., 1994; Smith et al., 1995). Literature cited: For peer reviewed journal articles: Boistel, R., Aubin, T., Cloetens, P., Peyrin, F., Scotti, T., Herzog, P., Gerlach, J., Pollet, N., and Aubry, J.-F. 2013. How minute sogglossid frogs hear without a middle ear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:15360-15364. For books: Atlas, Michel C. 1996. Author’s Handbook of Styles for Life Science Journals. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Areas of research for review paper topics: Effects of Human Induced Rapid Environmental Change (HIREC) on plants or animals. How humans interact with nature and what are the consequences for nature and society. Rapid evolution of non-model organisms due to environmental change. Animal communication and issues with detection, reception, and perception. Animal-plant interactions and their importance in agroecosystems. Phenotypic plasticity in non-model organisms. Effects of climate change on human health, non-human animals, or plants. Keep in mind… This paper should be writing in English, Use correct punctuation, Be composed of complete sentences, Bulleted or numbered lists are NOT allowed, Quotations are NOT allowed. A few other key points… Your paper should be structured so that it doesn’t read as a list of answers to questions. Write strong organized paragraphs structured around main ideas; plan on one idea per paragraph. All statements should be explained and argued based on evidence. It is not sufficient to simply state a position without an explanation for why you have it. Any plagiarism will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the course. 2
I have a research paper (6-10 pgs) about “How climate change effects the breeding of avian species in north america” I have my research articles that need to be used along with what I believe they c I
Annotated Bib The effect of climate change on the duration of avian breeding seasons: a meta-analysis : There are major points that should not be overlooked while reading this article. The first thing to understand is that there are multi-brooded and single-brooded birds. All this means is how many offspring a bird produces in the same season vs a single, which is hatching once during the season. I learned that in reaction to a changing environment, several bird species are adjusting the timing of their egg-laying cycles. Over the last 45 years, of the 54 species studied, it was found that multi-brooded birds’ seasons have increased by 4 days every decade, while single-brooded birds’ seasons have decreased by 2 days. This is useful for my topic because they were able to conclude that multi-brooded or sedentary species will increase reproduction while single-brooded or migratory birds may have the opposite result. These results are based strictly on climate change as it gets warmer. Halupka L, Halupka K. The effect of climate change on the duration of avian breeding seasons: a meta-analysis. Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Nov 29;284(1867):20171710. Direct and indirect effects of high temperatures on fledging in a cooperatively breeding bird. : Although this article does not take place in North America, it has key points to help describe certain effects such as: how high temperatures affect nestlings, adult investment behavior during the summer season & how rainfall affects during high temperatures. The specific species they observed was the Turdoides bicolor. This species is common in both african and asian countries, but has features to compare to certain species in north america. What was concluded was that hotter temperatures resulted in weight reduction, shortened tarsi, and a slower rate of nestling daily growth. Also, the direct impact of temperature had the largest effect on chick size and daily growth rate for both 5- and 11-day-old chicks, followed by adults, according to our piecewise structural equation model. They also looked into the feeding rate, but for my paper, I won’t be going in specific with this species feeding, but temperature-related changes in the feeding rate of precipitation and group size influenced adult feeding behavior but not chick growth or survival. Bourne AR, Ridley AR, Spottiswoode CN, Cunningham SJ. Direct and indirect effects of high temperatures on fledging in a cooperatively breeding bird. Behavioral Ecology. 2021;32(6):1212-1223. Non‐photic environmental cues and avian reproduction in an era of global change. : In this article, it wants the reader to focus on understanding how birds use nonphotic cues is an essential part of making predictions about their responses to global change. Overall, this article will be useful for me because they illustrate nonphotic cues that might influence how animals respond to climate change by regulating reproduction. It compared different species along with its sexes( didn’t get to deep into sex differences). What I found interesting is that high temperatures will affect food reproduction. This makes sense because certain crops and insects cannot grow or multiply without the proper nutrition from the environment. Understanding these interactions; researchers assess hypotheses in the literature concerning the integration of photoperiodic and non photoperiodic signals in reproductive time, as well as differences in non photoperiodic cue use across sexes and across species. Chmura HE, Wingfield JC, Hahn TP. Non‐photic environmental cues and avian reproduction in an era of global change. Journal of Avian Biology. 2020;51(3):1-20. Behavioral plasticity under a changing climate; how an experimental local climate affects the nest construction of the zebra finch : Campbell, B.L., Hurley, L.L. and Griffith, S.C. (2018), Behavioural plasticity under a changing climate; how an experimental local climate affects the nest construction of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. J Avian Biol, 49: jav-01717. Reproduction in avian species is counted on by nests that hold and provide shelter for their eggs. Their nests are extremely important in reproduction and care for their young. In this article, the author discusses how climate change affects their nests. They investigated how a drastic temperature increase affects the nest of Zebra Finches. Their behavior is observed on how they handle increased temperature while trying to reproduce. They discovered many changes within their nests like the weight of them and resources used for them. The article pushes that nest differences are only one consequence that can happen with climate change. Mismatch-induced growth reductions in a clade of Arctic-breeding shorebirds are rarely mitigated by increasing temperatures. : Lameris, T. & Tomkovich, P. & Johnson, J. & Morrison, R. & Tulp, Ingrid & Lisovski, S. & Decicco, L. & Dementyev, M. & Gill, Jr, R. & Ten Horn, J. & Piersma, T. & Pohlen, Z. & Schekkerman, H. & Soloviev, M.& Syroechkovsky, E. & Zhemchuzhnikov, M.& Van Gils, Jan. (2021). Mismatch‐induced growth reductions in a clade of Arctic‐breeding shorebirds are rarely mitigated by increasing temperatures. Global Change Biology. 28. 10.1111/gcb.16025. This article brings concern of increasing temperature affecting the variation of phenotypes in avian species. The authors use various types of arctic birds. The researchers use the chicks to test their theory of phenological changes due to mismatching. The chicks are hatch at different seasonal periods and seem to grow faster at a higher temperature, but only enough to compare to the populations in colder weather. Their results showed vulnerability in the species and ties in with how their prey dynamics and feeding would change due to breeding in different seasons. Climate change and land management implications for a declining Neotropical migratory songbird breeding in the North American Great Plains Glass, A. J., A. J. Caven, D. Kim, M. O. Sutton, and N. Arcilla. 2020. Climate change and land management implications for a declining Neotropical migratory songbird breeding in the North American Great Plains. Avian Conservation and Ecology 15(1):4. Grassland breeding birds are a species that are in the great plains of North America. They are songbirds that use their song for various reasons like communication. Unfortunately, they are high at risk due to major threats like losing their habitats and climate change. They continue to rapidly decline and be the highest risked species in North America. In this article, the avian species the Grasshopper Sparrow was used in an experiment to test their indicators. Land management and climate were the factors affected in order to evaluate these species indicators. As this species has been declining since before 1970, the results on this article further prove the negative consequences of climate change. Impacts of climate variation and potential effects of climate change on South American seabirds – a review Stanek JE, Thompson BE, Milligan SE, Tranquillo KA, Fettig SM, Hathcock CD. Does Age, Residency, or Feeding Guild Coupled with a Drought Index Predict Avian Health during Fall Migration? Animals. 2022;12(4). Avian species that live on coasts are already in harm’s way due to different factors like human disturbances and lack of resources. Due to these disturbances, the species have a hard time surviving and carrying out their daily tasks. Large events such as the oil spill affected the avian species in various ways. An even larger event is currently taking place which is causing issues with the avian populations. This large event is known as climate change. But in this article, the authors mention the concern of climate change and how it can also add another consequence to avian species on the coastal side. It explores the longer climate change effects and discusses large events that happen when avian species populations are at a high risk. Anthropogenic drivers of avian community turnover from local to regional scales. Di Cecco GJ, Hurlbert AH. Anthropogenic drivers of avian community turnover from local to regional scales. Global Change Biology. 2022;28(3):770-781. In this article, the authors use a method called ordination method to determine what factors cause community turnovers. Using factors as climate change and land use on certain scales and results were placed on a bird breeding survey. This collection went on from 1990 to 2016 and is also used to know how turnover affects avian species in other ways. This article came down to two important factors in their results about variations and large shifts leading to different signals. Impact of climate change and prey abundance on nesting success of a top predator, the goshawk. Lehikoinen A, Lindén A, Byholm P, et al. Impact of climate change and prey abundance on nesting success of a top predator, the goshawk. Oecologia. 2013;171(1):283-293. Increasing worldwide temperatures causes effects in not only humans, but animals as well. Effects of breeding for avian species is also a negative effect with climate change. In this article, the authors use the increasing weather to their advantage to test different temperatures that breeding for a specific avian species can maintain. With charts, graphs and evidence included, this article brings up the food chain and how the effects of breeding is a disadvantage to not only the birds, but their prey as well. Avian species continue to show struggle within their population due to climate and it not only affects their nesting, but their prey. If their prey is low on abundance, it affects the survival rate of avians.

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