New York University Bullying General Discussion Responses

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PEER RESPONSES- 150 words. 2 references needed

Peer # 1 Clea Response due in 12 hours

The historical timeline media presentation has many eye-opening dates and events that have happened over time, however the one that I find most interesting is the timeline of bullying. Bullying, or being cruel to another person has been around since the dawn of time, and we used terms like “boys will be boys,” “be tougher,” and “it’s part of growing up.” It wasn’t until the 1970’s when bullying was included on the suicide previntion description, and it wasn’t until the 1980’s when bullying was recogognized as including the social exclusion of people. Unfortunately it took the tragic incident at Columbine in 1999, for there to be any real recognition of what it meant to be bullied and the trauma that can come from that. “Bullying is usually defined as a form of aggression in which one or more children intend to harm or disturb another child who is perceived as being unable to defend himself or herself.” (Glew, Rivara,& Feudtner, 2000). Being a teacher, I have seen a great deal of change in this arena. Students are so much more educated on what it means to be bullied, strategies to use to deal with being bullied and just the term of “you’re bullying me,” or “stop being a bully.” In the beginning it seemed that there was just an emphasis on the victim of bullying, but now we see that both the victim and the bully need help. Many bullies have “ negative relations with parents and a cold emotional climate at home (Olweus, 1980; Rigby, 1993, 1994;Bowers et al., 1994), and exposure to violence and racial prejudice in the community.” (Randall, 1996). These are important things in bringing real prevention to bullying. We first need to look at the bully and why they do it if we ever want to put a stop to it. Children act out what they know and will do things to bring healing to themselves, even if it is at the detriment of others.

Historical prevention to modern day wellness in my opinion has changed in the fact we are no longer just recognizing there are problems, we are trying to actively address and educate ourselves and others before there is a problem. For example with bullying, we don’t just punish the bully, we counsel them and understand the root of their anger/insecurities/etc. Starting as young as preschool, we are teaching different strategies about how to recognize insecurities, issues at home, etc so we can give what would be the bully, tools and a place to heal themselves before they turn into a bully, hence ending the cycle.

References

Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. H. (2005). Bullying in School: An Overview of Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies. Children & Schools, 27(2), 101–110. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1093/cs/27.2.101

Yoneyama, S., & Naito, A. (2003). Problems with the Paradigm: the school as a factor in understanding bullying (with special reference to Japan). British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(3), 315. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/01425690301894

Peer # 2 Cassandra S Response due in 24 hours

Hi Class,

Throughout history, there has been momentous shift in the opinion of mental health, as well as the treatment and care of people with mental health problems.

The historical timeline we were asked to view begins with the recognition of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). From 1861-1905 it was first documented as “irritable heart” or “Soldiers heart”. By 1905 it was considered a legitimate medical health condition by the Russian Army. Awareness was also given in a memorandum published in 1920 by Austrian Neurologist, Sigmund Freud who wrote of the rumored brutal treatment of psychologically wounded soldiers. Little progress is made in the United States however until 1945 when the terminology changes from “shell shock” to Battle fatigue or combat stress reaction (CRS) for WWII soldiers (Friedman, 2015). This brought a greater awareness of a psychological health issue caused by an “event the individual suffered, rather than a personal weakness” (Friedman, 2018., para. 1).

In 1941 awareness is brought to the health issues related to smoking after an article is published linking smoking to lung cancer. Three years later concerns are also raised to the health issues relating to Alcohol consumption when an announcement is made by the U.S. Public Health Service that Alcoholism as the “4th largest health problem in America” (Significant Events, n.d.). In 1947 the Alcohol Rehabilitation act was passed that recognized a person with alcohol addition as a medically ill person. (Timeline, 2015). There were also support groups established in 1949 such as the Alcoholics Victorious recovery support group (Significant Events, n.d). In 1967 Alcoholism is identified as a “complex” disease, and a resolution is passed “recognizing medical components are medicine’s responsibility (Timeline, 2015). By 1969 funding is established for prevention as well as treatment for alcoholism with the Public services Amendment Act signed by President Johnson.

The last two significant shifts are in the issues of Depression and Suicide prevention and treatment. In 1960, Dr. Aaron T. Beck develops a Cognitive Therapy treatment for depression and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21), a self-rating inventory for depression in 1961. Two years later the Community Mental Health Centers Act is passed by Congress calling for” increased community services and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill” (Our History, 2015). Further progress is seen in 1966, with awareness being brought to prevalence of Suicide with the development of the Suicide Research Unit created by the National Institute of Mental Health. (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012). There is also a short educational film produced on Mental Health awarnessby Mental Health America.

For all of these issues, one common link can be found as far as the effect of prevention on modern health, that being that prevention and treatment measures were only established after links were found to documented health issues. For example, lung cancer linked with smoking, suicide linked to depression, or PTSD linked with depression or suicide. When these links are identified it not only leads to awareness but also opens doors for funding to develop programs and research to continue or improve preventative measures.

References

Friedman, M. J. (2015). History of PTSD in veterans: Civil War to DSM-5. Retrieved from //www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/histor…

Friedman, M. J. (2018). VA.gov: Veterans Affairs. Retrieved February 20, 2021, from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand/what/history_pt…

A timeline of significant events. (2015). Retrieved from //www.ncadd.org/about-ncadd/about- us/timeline-of-events

Our history. (2015). Retrieved from //www.mentalhealthamerica.net/our-history

Significant events in the history of addiction treatment and recover in America. (n.d.). Retrieved from //www.williamwhitepapers.com/pr/AddictionTreatment%2…

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2012, September). Appendix C, Brief History of Suicide Prevention in the United States. In 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention: Goals and Objectives for Action: A Report of the U.S. Surgeon General and of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK109918/

Peer # 3 Savannah Response due in 36 hours

Historically, list some causes of the shift from cure to prevention focus.

As more research and more information is gathered on topics of health and wellness, prevention efforts started to form. Most health issues did not receive attention until it became very apparent that they were in fact issues and taking a huge toll on the health of American’s and the entire world’s population. Smoking, for instance, became widely popular in 1941 during the second World War. Five years later Dr. Ochsner and Dr. DeBakey publish an article linking smoking to lung cancer. Despite this publication, not much was done to prevent the population from smoking, and in 1960 Cigarette consumption reaches its peak. In 1964 the landmark Surgeon General’s report linking smoking to lung cancer was released and affected the nation’s population. The results of the report begin to change public opinion toward smoking and start the fight against death and disease from tobacco. In 1969 Congress requires each pack of cigarettes to have a warning label about the hazards of cigarette smoke and in 1972 Surgeon General releases report about the dangers of public exposure to pollution from tobacco smoke. Finally, in 2000 the reduced number of people smoking begins to reduce the number of deaths related to tobacco.

Not just in smoking, but with many health issues it seems that the cause for a shift from treatment to prevention was the release of information. It wasn’t until extensive research was released to the general public on the link between cancer, among other health problems, and smoking that prevention efforts were taken seriously and individuals quit smoking.

Explain how historical prevention and lack of prevention has effected changes to modern mental health and wellness programs.

Historical prevention has affected modern mental health by simply giving it it’s start. In this case taking depression as an example. In 1952 the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders is released, giving depression it’s official diagnosis. Due to depression having an official diagnosis, treatments and prevention efforts were able to begin. First by the development of Cognitive Brain Therapy, The Beck Depression Inventory to screen for depression, in 1963 the Community Mental Health Centers Act is passed by Congress. These were all treatments created after the diagnosis, but after treatments were proven to be effective researchers and doctors knew more about these illness and health risks, therefore, having the ability to create prevention methods. In 1971 a short film called “Only Human” is produced by Mental Health America and it is shown on over 150 television stations. The purpose of this short film was to improve understanding of mental illness by the public. The first step in prevention is education. In 1966 the Mental Health Parity Act is passed which brings more equity to the coverage of mental health care by insurance companies, another step forward for prevention. Addressing needs when they first begin and having the ability to do so prevents mental illnesses from becoming bigger, long lasting issues. Put simply, the prevention efforts of the past paved the way for new prevention efforts in modern medicine. Without those successes or failures, we would be trying them know and be years behind in prevention efforts. Each treatment or prevention effort, whether they were a success or failure built a foundation for future advances.

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