This week, you will learn about the anatomical and physiological functions of the skeletal system, classification and structure of bones and cartilages, and the axial skeleton. To successfully complet

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This week, you will learn about the anatomical and physiological functions of the skeletal system, classification and structure of bones and cartilages, and the axial skeleton.

To successfully complete the assignments, first read and complete both exercises from the laboratory manual:

  • Exercise 9
  • Exercise 10

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This week, you will learn about the anatomical and physiological functions of the skeletal system, classification and structure of bones and cartilages, and the axial skeleton. To successfully complet
61 The Skull 1.First, match the bone names in column B with the descriptions in column A (the items in column B may be used more than once). Then, circle the bones in column B that are cranial bones. Column A1. forehead bone 2. cheekbone 3. lower jaw 4. bridge of nose 5. posterior bones of the hard palate 6. much of the lateral and superior cranium 7. most posterior part of cranium 8. single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor 9. tiny bones bearing tear ducts 10. anterior part of hard palate 11. superior and medial nasal conchae formed from its projections 12. site of mastoid process 13. site of sella turcica 14. site of cribriform plate 15. site of mental foramen 16. site of styloid processes , , , and 17. four bones containing paranasal sinuses 18. condyles here articulate with the atlas 19. foramen magnum contained here 20. small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscles attach 21. middle ear found here 22. nasal septum 23. bears an upward protrusion, the “cock’s comb,” or crista galli , 24. contain alveoli bearing teeth The Axial Skeleton Column B a. ethmoid b. frontal c. hyoid d. lacrimal e. mandible f. maxilla g. nasal h. occipital i. palatine j. parietal k. sphenoid l. temporal m. vomer n. zygomatic NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________ EXERCISE REVIEW SHEET 10 62 Review Sheet 10 2.Using choices from the numbered key to the right, identify all bones and bone markings provided with leader lines in the two diagrams below. Key:1. carotid canal 2. coronal suture 3. ethmoid bone 4. external occipital protuberance 5. foramen lacerum 6. foramen magnum 7. foramen ovale 8. frontal bone 9. glabella 10. incisive fossa 11. inferior nasal concha 12. inferior orbital fissure 13. infraorbital foramen 14. jugular foramen 15. lacrimal bone 16. mandible 17. mandibular fossa 18. mandibular symphysis 19. mastoid process 20. maxilla 21. mental foramen 22. middle nasal concha of ethmoid 23. nasal bone 24. occipital bone 25. occipital condyle 26. palatine bone 27. palatine process of maxilla 28. parietal bone 29. sagittal suture 30. sphenoid bone 31. styloid process 32. stylomastoid foramen 33. superior orbital fissure 34. supraorbital foramen 35. temporal bone 36. vomer 37. zygomatic bone 38. zygomatic process of temporal bone 63 Review Sheet 10 3.Define suture. 4. With one exception, the skull bones are joined by sutures. Name the excep tion. 5. What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture? What bones are connected by the squamous suture? 6. Name the eight bones of the cranium. 7. Give two possible functions of the sinuses. ____________________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 8. What is the orbit? _____________________________________________________ _______________________________ What bones contribute to the formation of the orbit? ___________________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 9. Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor? _ ________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ The Vertebral Column 10. The distinguishing characteristics of the vertebrae composing the verteb ral column are noted below. Correctly identify each described structure by choosing a response from the key. Key: a. atlas d. coccyx f. sacrum b. axis e. lumbar vertebra g. thoracic vertebra c. cervical vertebra—typical 1. vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebralarteries ascend to reach the brain 2. dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra ( C 1) 3. transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs; spinous process pointing sharply downward 4. composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally 5. massive vertebrae; weight-sustaining 6. “tail bone”; vestigial fused vertebrae 7. supports the head; allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occip ital condyles 64 Review Sheet 10 11 .Using the key, correctly identify the vertebral parts/areas described below. (More than one choice may apply in some cases.) Also use the key letters to correctly identify the vertebral areas in th e diagram. Key: a. body d. pedicle g. transverse process b. intervertebral foramina e. spinous process h. vertebral arch c. lamina f. facet of superior articular process i. vertebral foramen 1. cavity enclosing the nerve cord 2. weight-bearing portion of the vertebra , 3. provide levers against which muscles pull , 4. provide an articulation point for the ribs 5. openings providing for exit of spinal nerves , 6. structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord 12. Describe how a spinal nerve exits from the vertebral column. ___________ ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 13. Name two factors/structures that permit flexibility of the vertebral col umn. ________________________________________________ and ___________________ ___________________________ 14. What kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs? _________________ _____________________________________ 15. What is a herniated disc? ______________________________________________ ________________________________ What problems might it cause? __________________________________________ _______________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 16. Which two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth? ______________________ ____ and ____________________________ Under what conditions do the secondary curvatures develop? _____________ ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 65 Review Sheet 10 17.On this illustration of an articulated vertebral column, identify each c urvature indicated and label it as a primary or a sec- ondary curvature. Also identify the structures provided with leader lines, using the lette rs of the terms listed in the key bel ow. Key: a. atlas b. axis c. intervertebral disc d. sacrum e. two thoracic vertebrae f. two lumbar vertebrae g. vertebra prominens (curvature) (curvature) (curvature) (curvature) 66 Review Sheet 10 The Thoracic Cage 18.The major bony components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column ) are the ________________________________ and the . 19. Differentiate between a true rib and a false rib. _________________________ ____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ Is a floating rib a true or a false rib? 20. What is the general shape of the thoracic cage? ________________________ ____________________________________ 21. Using the terms in the key, identify the regions and landmarks of the bony thorax. Lumbar Vertebrea Key: a. body b. clavicular notch c. costal cartilage d. false ribs e. floating ribs f. jugular notch g. manubrium h. sternal angle i. sternum j. true ribs k. xiphisternal joint l. xiphoid process
This week, you will learn about the anatomical and physiological functions of the skeletal system, classification and structure of bones and cartilages, and the axial skeleton. To successfully complet
N AME L AB TIME/DATE R E V I E W S H E E T E X E R C I S E Print Form 9 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structur e of Bones and Cartilages Bone Markings 1.Match the terms in column B with the appropriate description in column A. Column A 1. sh arp, slender process* 2.s mall rounded projection* 3.na rrow ridge of bone* 4.l arge rounded projection* 5.s tructure supported on neck † 6.a rmlike projection † 7.r ounded, articular projection ‡ 8. n arrow opening ‡ 9. can al -like structure ‡ 10. round or oval opening through a bone ‡ 11. shallow depression † 12. air -filled cavity 13. large, irregularly shaped projection* 14. raised area on or above a condyle* 15.projection or prominence Column B a. condyle b.crest c.epicondyle d.fissure e.foramen f.fossa g. head h.meatus i.process j.ramus k. sinus l.spine m. trochanter n.tubercle o.tuberosity *a site of muscle attachment†takes part in joint formation ‡a passageway for nerves or blood vessels Classification of Bones 2. The four major an atomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular. Which category has the least amount o f sp ongy bone relative to its total volume? 55 3.P lace the name of each labeled bone in Figure 9.1, page 112, into the appropriate column of the chart here. Long Short Flat Irregular Gr oss Anatom y of the T ypica l Long Bone 4.Use the terms below to identify the structures marked by leader lines and braces in the diagrams (some terms are used more than once). Key: a. articular cartilage e. epiphyseal line i. periosteum b. compact bone f. epiphysis j. red marrow cavity c. diaphysis g. medullary cavity k. trabeculae of spongy bone d. endosteum h. nutrient artery l. yellow marrow (b) (a ) (c) 56 Review Sheet 9 5. Match the terms in question 4 with the information below. 1. contains spongy bone in adults 5. scientific term for bone shaft 2. made of compact bone 3. site of blood cell formation 6. contains fat in adult bones 7. growth plate remnant , 4. major submembranous site of osteoclasts 8. major submembranous site of osteoblasts 6. What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye? 7. What is the function of the periosteum? Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone 8. Trace the route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna. Periosteum osteocyte 9. Several descriptions of bone structure are given below. Identify the structure involved by choosing the appropriate term from the key and placing its letter in the blank. Then, on the photomicrograph of bone on the right (208 X), identify all structures named in the key and bracket an osteon. Key: a. canaliculi b. central canal c. concentric lamellae d. lacunae e. matrix 1. layers of bony matrix around a central canal 2. site of osteocytes 3. longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves 4. minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon 5. inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance Review Sheet 9 57 Chemical Composition of Bone 10. What is the function of the organic matrix in bone? 11. Name the important organic bone components. 12. Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts? 13. Baking removes from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes . Ossification: Bone Formation and Growth in Length 14. Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate. Epiphyseal face: Diaphyseal face: Cartilages of the Skeleton 15. Using the key choices, identify each type of cartilage described (in terms of its body location or function) below. Key: a. elastic b. fibrocartilage c. hyaline 1. supports the external ear 2. between the vertebrae 3. forms the walls of the voice box (larynx) 4. the epiglottis 5. articular cartilages 6. meniscus in a knee joint 7. connects the ribs to the sternum 8. most effective at resisting compression 9. most springy and flexible 10. most abundant 58 Review Sheet 9

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