Topic 4 DQ 1.2

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Please respond with a paragraph to the following post, add citations and references.

Any variable that the researcher is not intentionally studying in an experiment or test. An experiment focuses on two specific variables, independent or dependent. Throughout experiments, thousands of variables constantly change. For example, when you have participants from various backgrounds, cultures, different weights and heights. They are all different and changes with every participant. The condition of the experiment also changes with several factors such as light, temperature, weather and people. All these extra variables are known as extraneous variables.

Researchers can control extraneous variables; the independent variables are most likely to influence the dependent variable. These variables should be controlled if possible. Researchers can restrict participants in the same way, conduct the experiment in the same setting, and offer the same rewards for participants in a study. This gives participants the same explanations and give similar feedback once the experiment is over. Researchers work hard to stop extraneous variables from turning into confounding variables, it prevents incorrect experiment results.

There are three keys factors that one should consider when controlling extraneous variables:

1. Participant variables- minimize the differences between the two participants

2. Researcher variables- Researcher behaviors, appearance and gender should be consistent throughout the experiment.

3. Situational variables- control the setting where the experiment takes place.


McLeod, S. (2018). Independent, Dependent and Extraneous Variables. Retrieved from

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