Respond to Cynthia by offering a strategy to address the ethical issue she or he identified.
A few sentences and a question. $5 post
Threats to Internal and External Validity in Quantitative Studies
conclusions that researchers draw from their work will only be useful
if they are valid. For example, if I designed a survey to assess the
levels of job satisfaction within my organization but I end up measuring
the levels of employee stress, my study will not be valid. Validity,
therefore, is the level at which a concept is measured accurately in a
quantitative study (Burkholder, Cox & Crawford, 2016). In other
words, validity is the situation where the results support the
interpretation of the data and that the way in which the interpretations
are made is appropriate (Heale & Twycross, 2015).
valid study has truthful and believable results. Internal validity
relates to the structure of the study (if the results are useful and
meaningful) while external validity relates to whether the results of
the study can be applied to other groups, situations or events. One
thereat to internal validity is history- other events occur during the
course of the treatment that may alter the results apart from the
instance, if I am evaluating the effectiveness of a new, strict
“no-lateness” policy at my organization, a few employees who are
dismissed for general poor performance (lateness being just one of the
reasons) may encourage other employees to adhere to this program.
However, these employees are adhering to the program because of their
dismissed colleagues and not entirely because of the policy. To mitigate
this threat, the researcher should ensure that their sample is guarded
rom other factors that may affect their participation in the study.
the other hand, a threat to external validity could occur of the
participants in the study are different from those in the population.
For example, if the participants in my organization are significantly
younger than those in the population, the results cannot be generalized.
To mitigate this threat, the researcher/s need to make sure the sample
is as diverse as possible so that it reflects the population in which it
was selected from.
potential ethical issue that may arise in quantitative research are
issues to do with professional work that may lead to the participants
being fired or face disciplinary action (Walden University Centre for
Research Quality, 2018).Examples includes instances where the researcher
discloses information on how the participants were guilty of gross
misconduct or failure to follow the directions of their leaders.
Therefore, the researcher must make sure that the design does not reveal
the identity of the participants.
I am studying 15 employees from one department, for example, I need not
to name the shifts in which they worked because it would be easier for
their seniors to track them based on the shift planner. Being amenable
to scientific study means that the factors that influence the results of
the study can be measured quantitatively. In the example above, for
example, I should be able to measure the average arrival time of all the
employees in regard to the “no-lateness” policy.
Babbie, E. (2017) Basics of social research (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evidence-based nursing, 18(3), 66-67.
Walden University: Centre for Research Quality (2018). Research ethics & Compliance: Documents and FAQs. Retrieved from https://academicguides. Waldenu.edu/researchcenter/ orec/documents