When citing from the literature, please paraphrase, and cite inline as is done in scientific journal articles, if needed. DO NOT QUOTE. 10. Answer the following questions using Figure 7 (with 0.05

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When citing from the literature, please paraphrase, and cite inline as is done in scientific journal articles, if needed.  DO NOT QUOTE.

10.   Answer the following questions using Figure 7 (with 0.05 increments).

The howler monkey population goes extinct when mortality due to pesticide exposure reaches  0.2. (1 point)

The capuchin monkey population goes extinct when mortality due to pesticide exposure reaches 0.25. (1 point)

11.   Describe briefly how varying dispersal frequency might contribute to the difference in response between the two species to the presence of toxins in the environment. Recall the fact that this toxin is distributed equally throughout the environment, and that the toxin has a mortality rate less than 1. Your answer should be 100 – 200 words. (2 points)

12. What could you do to make the model we used more realistic for simulating the consequences of fragmentation? Offer at least 2 suggestions and explain why these alterations would improve our results. If you changed the model by adding or modifying parameters as suggested above, how would they change your results? Discuss whether each modification would increase or decrease the likelihood of the monkey population surviving 500 years. Your answer should be approximately 150 – 250 words. (3 points)

When citing from the literature, please paraphrase, and cite inline as is done in scientific journal articles, if needed. DO NOT QUOTE. 10. Answer the following questions using Figure 7 (with 0.05

When citing from the literature, please paraphrase, and cite inline as is done in scientific journal articles, if needed. DO NOT QUOTE. 10. Answer the following questions using Figure 7 (with 0.05

When citing from the literature, please paraphrase, and cite inline as is done in scientific journal articles, if needed. DO NOT QUOTE. 10. Answer the following questions using Figure 7 (with 0.05
C ase S tu dy # 1 – H ab it a t F ra gm en ta tio n E EM B 1 59 S um mer B Q uestio n s f o r o n lin e s u bm is sio n ( 2 3/3 0 t o ta l p oin ts ) Answer the following questions on the GauchoSpace “quiz”. When citing from the literature, please paraphrase, and cite inline as is done in scientific journal articles, if needed. DO NOT QUOTE. Keep in mind that only one person in your group needs to submit your answers on GauchoSpace. A. Dispersal Ability (4 points) 1. Which species of monkey has a higher average population size after 500 years? (1 point) a. Capuchin b. Howler c. They are equal 2. Which species of monkey has a greater probability of surviving 500 years? (1 point) a. Capuchin b. Howler c. They are equal 3. Imagine that the matrix surrounding the patches is now second-growth forest instead of cow pasture. Which model parameter would you most likely change to account for this dif ference? (1 point) a. Carrying capacity of patches b. Low density birth rates c. Dispersal probability between patches d. Adult survival within patches Which species of monkey would benefit MOST from this change in the matrix habitat? (1 point) a. Capuchin b. Howler c. They are equal B. Patch Size (9 points) 4. Which is the better distribution of patch size for howlers? (1 point) a. Uneven b. Even c. They are equal 5. Which is the better distribution of patch size for capuchins? (1 point) a. Uneven b. Even c. They are equal 6. Using information about resource availability , animal behavior , and natural history (found in the background readings) describe reasons why the above results are true for each species (2 points for each species description). Limit your response to 150 – 250 words. The feeding habits of howler monkeys may explain why an uneven distribution pattern of patch size is beneficial for the species. Howler monkeys are primarily leaf eaters and prefer to remain higher up in rainforest trees (Glander 1975). They specifically select certain leaves based on their dietary needs such as eating older leaves for fiber and protein and newer leaves for water (Glander 1981). In the uneven distribution pattern lar ger patches of rainforest are available for howler monkey habitation and may allow the monkeys to forage for whichever leaves suit their dietary needs the best; they may not succeed as much in smaller fragments because there is less space for them to forage in the higher parts of trees. Capuchin monkeys on the other hand appear to succeed the most in an even distribution pattern with evenly sized, fragmented forests. Capuchin monkeys are more general omnivores whose diet includes fruit, larvae, and other small invertebrates; they forage across the entire height of the rainforest and do not mind running along the forest floor (Freese 1977). One reason that capuchin monkeys may succeed in fragmented patches is due to the way pioneer species succeed in fragmented forests. In fragmented forests pioneer species are easily able to disperse their seeds between fragments via birds and small mammals and thus many species are able to produce lar ge amounts of fruit (Sampaio 2000). This combined with capuchin monkeys’ ability to forage on the forest floor may allow them to more easily forage in fragmented patches and disperse between dif ferent patches. 7. When the total area of the patches is reduced to 100 ha, which species of monkey does best? (1 point) a. Capuchin b. Howler c. They both go extinct 8. When the total patch area reduction leads to extinction, how long (on average) does this take to occur? (1 point) a. 0 – 10 years b. 10 – 25 years c. 25 – 50 years d. 50 – 75 years e. 75 – 100 years f. 100 – 200 years g. > 200 years 9. The minimum land area necessary (when patch sizes are even) to ensure the survival of howler monkeys is (1 point): a. 500 b. 750 c. 1000 d. 1050 e. 1 100 f. 1 150 g. 1200 C. T oxicity (4 points) 10. Answer the following questions using Figure 7 (with 0.05 increments). The howler monkey population goes extinct when mortality due to pesticide exposure reaches 0.2. (1 point) The capuchin monkey population goes extinct when mortality due to pesticide exposure reaches 0.25. (1 point) 1 1. Describe briefly how varying dispersal frequency might contribute to the dif ference in response between the two species to the presence of toxins in the environment. Recall the fact that this toxin is distributed equally throughout the environment, and that the toxin has a mortality rate less than 1. Your answer should be 100 – 200 words. (2 points) D. Interpr etation (6 points) 12. Considering all of your results, what would you recommend to the Brazilian government for protecting both species of monkey? Why? Address patch size distribution and land use around patches. Your answer should be approximately 150 – 250 words. (3 points) T o protect both species we would recommend protecting at least 1 100 hectares of total area and limiting the amount of pesticide used to a concentration that leads to less than 15% mortality . Although we indicated that a minimum of 1000 hectares was required to prevent howler monkeys from going extinct, our simulations showed that there were a significant amount of extinction events that occured at 1000 hectares and these could be significantly decreased if the total was increased to at least 1 100 hectares. Ideally there could be a one or two lar ger patches (between 200-300 hectares) that could support the population of howler monkeys in the area while the rest of the patches could be smaller fragmented patches which would support the population of capuchin monkeys in the area. The land around the patches would most likely be used by farmers and as previously stated they would need to keep their pesticide use to a level that would keep the mortality rate of monkeys to less than 15%. This would prevent the howler monkeys (who can tolerate up to 15% while going extinct at 20%) and the capuchin monkeys (who can tolerate up to 20% while going extinct at 25%) from going extinct due to pesticide toxicity . 13. What could you do to make the model we used more realistic for simulating the consequences of fragmentation? Of fer at least 2 suggestions and explain why these alterations would improve our results. If you changed the model by adding or modifying parameters as suggested above, how would they change your results? Discuss whether each modification would increase or decrease the likelihood of the monkey population surviving 500 years. Your answer should be approximately 150 – 250 words. (3 points)

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